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Improving invasive ant eradication as a conservation tool : a review
Available Online

Hoffman, Benjamin ... et al.

2016
While invasive species eradications are at the forefront of biodiversity conservation, ant eradication failures are common. We reviewed ant eradications worldwide to assess the practice and identify knowledge gaps and challenges. We documented 316 eradication campaigns targeting 11 species, with most occurring in Australia covering small areas (b10 ha). Yellow crazy ant was targeted most frequently, while the bigheaded ant has been eradicated most often. Of the eradications with known outcomes, 144 campaigns were successful, totaling approximately 9500 ha, of which 8300 ha were from a single campaign that has since been partially re-invaded. Three active ingredients, often in combination, are most commonly used: fipronil, hydramethylnon, and juvenile hormone mimics. Active ingredient, bait, and method varied considerablywith respect to species targeted,which made assessing factors of eradication success challenging. We did, however, detect effects by active ingredient, number of treatments, and method on eradication success. Implementation costs increased with treatment area, and median costs were high compared to invasive mammal eradications. Ant eradications are in a phase of increased research and development, and a logical next step for practitioners is to develop best practices. A number of research themes that seek to integrate natural history with eradication strategies and methodologies would improve the ability to eradicate ants: increasing natural history and taxonomic knowledge, increasing the efficacy of active ingredients and baits, minimizing and mitigating non-target risks, developing better tools to declare eradication success, and developing alternative eradication methodologies. Invasive ant eradications are rapidly increasing in both size and frequency, and we envisage that eradicating invasive ants will increase in focus in coming decades given the increasing dispersal and subsequent impacts.
Taking the sting out of the Little Fire Ant in Hawaii

Lee, Donna J.

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Leung, PingSun

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Motoki, Michael

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Nakamoto, Stuart T.

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Vanderwoude, Casper

2015
Inthe1990's,LittleFireAnts(LFAs)founditswaytotheislandofHawaii,mostlikelytravelingwithashipmentof potted plantsfrom Florida.These plants weresubsequentlysold toconsumers along theeastcoast of theIsland, alongwithLittleFireAntcolonieslivinginthepottingmedium.LFAisnowthrivingandcontinuestospread.Fifteenyearsaftertheinitialdetectionin1999,LFAhasspreadtoover4000locationsontheislandofHawaiiandhas beenfoundinisolatedlocationsonKauai,Maui,andOahuIslands.Currenteffortsareexpectedtocontaintheinfestations on the otherislands but signi cant additional investment isneeded tohalt therapid spread of LFA on the island of Hawaii. Increased management expenditures can suppress infestations; reduce spread between sectors; and decrease long-term management costs, damages, and stings.| Animmediateexpenditureof$8millioninthenext2–3yearsplusfollow-upprevention,monitoring,andmitigation treatments will yield $1.210 billion in reduced control costs, $129 million in lowered economic damages, 315 million fewer human sting incidents, and 102 million less pet sting incidents over 10 years.| Over35years,thebene tsinclude$5.496billioninreducedcontrolcosts,$538millionlesseconomicdamages, 2.161 billion fewer human sting incidents, and 762 million fewer pet sting incidents.
An invasive ant distribution database to support biosecurity risk analysis in the Pacific
Island and Ocean Ecosystems

Burne, Allan R.

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Cooling, Meghan

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Gruber, Monica A.

2017
Invasive species are one of the most serious threats to biodiversity. Up-to-date and accurate information on the distribution of invasive species is an important biosecurity risk analysis tool. Several databases are available to determine the distributions of invasive species and native species. However, keeping this information current is a real challenge. Ants are among the most widespread invasive species. Five species of ants are listed in the IUCN list of damaging invasive species, and many other species are also invasive in the Pacific. We sought to determine and update the distribution information for the 18 most problematic invasive ant species in the Pacific to assist in Small Island Developing States with risk analysis. We compared the information on six public databases, conducted a literature review, and contacted experts on invasive ants in the Pacific region to resolve conflicting information. While most public records were accurate we found some new records had not yet been incorporated into the public databases, and some information was inaccurate. The maintenance of public databases faces an enormous challenge in balancing completeness (~15 000 ant species in this case) with accuracy (the impossibility of constantly surveying) and utility.